Yuan Longping, the father of hybrid rice, just passed his 90th birthday two months ago. This “post-90s” once made a birthday wish, hoping that their third-generation hybrid rice “Sanyou No. 1” double-season yield per mu can reach 3000 catties.
Proudly promote 100 million mu
Hybrid rice can feed another 30 million people
In early November, the double-season rice planting base in Hengnan County, Hunan Province, conducted the production test of the third-generation hybrid rice “Sanyou No. 1”. The field test results of late rice showed that the average yield per mu reached 911.7 kg, plus the previously measured average yield of early rice was 619.06 kg per mu, and the double-cropping rice yield per mu reached 1530.76 kg, achieving the double-cropping “3000 jin per mu” by Academician Yuan Longping. Yuan Lao and his team once again set the record of hybrid rice yield per mu.
The third-generation hybrid rice has the characteristics of high yield, disease resistance, cold resistance and lodging resistance. Therefore, the third-generation hybrid rice technology is also regarded by Academician Yuan Longping as the key to breaking through the “ceiling” of yield per mu.
To hybridize better rice, you must first obtain the best “mother rice”. This process can be described as one in a million.
Since 2011, a large number of female rice has been cultivated, and it was not until 2015 that more than 100 candidate “mother rice” were successfully obtained. Yuan Longping’s team has cultivated nearly 50 batches of tens of thousands of rice. Next, the more than one hundred “mother rice” as the female parent will be crossed with thousands of male parents of different varieties. After more than two years, Hunan and Hainan were hybridized at the same time. After about 8 generations of hybridization, the whole team finally won the best male and female parent combination of “Sanyouyi” in 2018.
Since then, 8 southern provinces including Hunan, Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hubei have all started trial planting of “Sanyou No. 1” to explore the best planting methods in each region.Speaking of future work plans, Yuan Longping said that there are two tasks to be completed. The first is to achieve a hybrid rice yield of 1,800 kg per mu within five years, and the second is to continue to promote “sea rice”, that is, the cultivation of salt-tolerant rice. . He calculated that there are nearly 200 million mu of saline-alkali land in the country where rice can be grown. If 100 million mu can be planted across the country, it is estimated that the annual output of grain will be 50 billion kilograms. This will solve the food problem of 150 million people. .
Yuan Longping once had a dream. The rice in the dream was as tall as sorghum, the ears were as long as a broom, and the grains were as big as peanuts. People could sit under the ears of rice to enjoy the cool. Up to now, my country’s hybrid rice planting area has reached 200 million mu, and giant rice with a height of nearly 2 meters has been born. This “post-90s” old man’s “dream of enjoying the shade under the grass” and “dream of covering the world with hybrid rice” A little bit becomes reality.
Cracking the Code of High Yield Corn in 35 Years
Cumulative increase in grain production by 10 billion catties
To ensure China’s food security, in addition to increasing yield per mu, it is also necessary to completely control seed technology in one’s own hands. Huang Changling is a senior expert in my country’s corn industry. In the past 35 years, he has been cultivating “three high and three resistance” corn varieties, which not only have high density, high ears and high seed setting rate, but also resistance to lodging and disease. , Drought resistance. But it takes ninety-nine and eighty-one difficulties to cultivate such a good breed.
In her meticulous research on the genetic genes of tens of thousands of large populations, Huang Changling has cracked the code of high corn yield.
In July and August every year, under the high temperature of more than 30 degrees Celsius, Huang Changling will appear on time in the breeding test field in Changping, Beijing, to conduct pollination and hybridization to observe the drought and lodging resistance of corn.
In the wind and rain, the scorching heat, from 1990 to 2007, Huang Changling used 17 years of persistence and finally cultivated the medium single 808 variety. The corn yield per mu has been increased from 500 to 600 kg to 1,380 kg, making it the corn region in southwest my country that has wide adaptability, good yield, and the largest popularized area.
After that, the Zhongdan 909 he cultivated showed superior characteristics in the Northeast. The new varieties of Zhongdan 808 and Zhongdan 909 won the second prize of National Science and Technology Progress Award in one fell swoop.
New wheat varieties received 4.55 million technology transfer fees
Highly recognized by the market
Professor Ji Wanquan, a wheat breeding expert from Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi, successfully bred a new high-quality and strong gluten “Xinong 511” wheat new variety in 2018, and was approved by the National Crop Variety Approval Committee. This new variety was also tested in four provinces. Has been highly recognized by the market.
An agricultural company took a fancy to the new wheat variety “Xinong 511” and bought the production and management rights. The Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University received a technology transfer fee of 4.55 million yuan, which also set the highest level of new wheat variety transfer fees in Shaanxi Province.
From the hybrid combination in 2006, to the provincial review in 2015, and then to the national review in 2018, the “Xinong 511” was “bred”. During the 13 years of Ji Wanquan and the team, almost 100 days a year traveled in Shaanxi, More than 60 test sites in 5 provinces including Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu. Engaged in wheat breeding research for more than 30 years, the Jiwanquan team has cultivated 7 high-quality, strong gluten, green and disease-resistant new varieties, with an average yield of 1,000 to 1,200 jin per mu.
Planting more than 10 million mu each year
Hold the rice bowl in your own hands
After the beginning of winter, the temperature in the northwest dropped to zero degrees. In the test field of Northwest A&F University, the local chief expert on wheat breeding, Wang Hui, is observing and recording the freezing resistance of wheat.
In 1973, when Yuan Longping bred the first generation of indica hybrid rice, Wang Hui also started wheat breeding under the guidance of the first generation of Chinese breeders, Academician Zhao Hongzhang. “High yield, stable yield, strong disease resistance” is Wang Hui’s breeding goal set for himself. The seemingly simple words are a lot of detailed and cumbersome projects.
Wheat breeding is hard work. From soil preparation and fertilization in early September, sowing in October, field observation records in winter and spring, disease resistance identification and field management, pollination and hybridization in late spring, classified harvesting and drying in midsummer, Wang Hui one year Most of the time is spent in the field. Picking plants one by one in the experimental field for ten years.
With “Xinong 979” planting and harvesting more than 10 million mu a year in more than 150 counties and districts in Henan, Shaanxi, Anhui, Shandong and other provinces, Professor Wang Hui’s wheat breeding team has worked in Huanghuai Wheat for decades. The district sang a song of a good harvest of wheat varieties.
[Half an hour observation] Biological breeding escorts food security
Seeds are called the “chips” of food. Recently, biological breeding has been included in the 14th Five-Year Plan and 2035 long-term target recommendations as one of the eight forward-looking and strategic national major scientific and technological projects that have been “named”. Against the background of changes in the global situation, food security issues have received unprecedented attention. The 14th Five-Year Plan and the 2035 long-term goal recommendations emphasize the need to “take the protection of national food security as the bottom line and improve the agricultural support and protection system”, and the cultivation of improved varieties provides strong support for food security from the source.
Up to now, my country’s independent varieties of crops account for more than 95%, and the coverage of improved varieties has continued to remain above 96%. We look forward to more and more modern biotechnological methods that can carry out targeted improvement of crops, accelerate the pace of breeding work, and increase the weight for advancing the structural reform of the agricultural supply side and ensuring the country’s food security.